HSBC Holdings plc (LON:HSBA) has announced its 2022 results.
Noel Quinn, Group Chief Executive, said:
“2022 was another good year for HSBC. We completed the first phase of our transformation and our international connectivity is now underpinned by good, broad-based profit generation around the world. This contributed to a strong overall financial performance. We are on track to deliver higher returns in 2023 and have built a platform for further value creation. With the delivery of higher returns, we will have increased distribution capacity, and we will also consider a special dividend once the sale of HSBC Canada is completed.”
2022 financial performance (vs 2021)
• Reported profit before tax fell by $1.4bn to $17.5bn, including an impairment on the planned sale of our retail banking operations in France of $2.4bn. Adjusted profit before tax increased by $3.4bn to $24.0bn. Reported profit after tax increased by $2.0bn to $16.7bn, including a $2.2bn credit arising from the recognition of a deferred tax asset.
• Reported revenue increased by 4% to $51.7bn, driven by strong growth in net interest income, with increases in all of our global businesses, and higher revenue from Global Foreign Exchange in Global Banking and Markets (‘GBM’). This was in part offset by a $3.1bn adverse impact of foreign currency translation differences, the impairment on the planned sale of our retail banking operations in France and adverse movements in market impacts in insurance manufacturing in Wealth and Personal Banking (‘WPB’). In addition, fee income fell in both WPB and GBM. Adjusted revenue increased by 18% to $55.3bn.
• Net interest margin (‘NIM’) of 1.48% increased by 28 basis points (‘bps’), reflecting interest rate rises.
• Reported expected credit losses and other credit impairment charges (‘ECL’) were $3.6bn, including allowances to reflect increased economic uncertainty, inflation, rising interest rates and supply chain risks, as well as the ongoing developments in mainland China’s commercial real estate sector. These factors were in part offset by the release of most of our remaining Covid-19-related reserves. This compared with releases of $0.9bn in 2021. ECL charges were 36bps of average gross loans and advances to customers.
• Reported operating expenses decreased by $1.3bn or 4% to $33.3bn, reflecting the favourable impact of foreign currency translation differences of $2.2bn and ongoing cost discipline, which were in part offset by higher restructuring and other related costs, increased investment in technology and inflation. Adjusted operating expenses increased by $0.4bn or 1.2% to $30.5bn, including a $0.2bn adverse impact from retranslating the 2022 results of hyperinflationary economies at constant currency.
• Customer lending balances fell by $121bn on a reported basis. On an adjusted basis, lending balances fell by $66bn, reflecting an $81bn reclassification of loans, primarily relating to the planned sale of our retail banking operations in France and the planned sale of our banking business in Canada, to assets held for sale. Growth in mortgage balances in the UK and Hong Kong mitigated a reduction in term lending in Commercial Banking (‘CMB’) in Hong Kong.
• Common equity tier 1 (‘CET1’) capital ratio of 14.2% reduced by 1.6 percentage points, primarily driven by a decrease of a 0.8 percentage point from new regulatory requirements, a reduction of a 0.7 percentage point from the fall in the fair value through other comprehensive income (‘FVOCI’) and a 0.3 percentage point fall from the impairment following the reclassification of our retail banking operations in France to held for sale. Capital generation was mostly offset by an increase in risk-weighted assets (‘RWAs’) net of foreign exchange translation movements.
• The Board has approved a second interim dividend of $0.23 per share, making a total for 2022 of $0.32 per share.
4Q22 financial performance (vs 4Q21)
• Reported profit before tax up $2.5bn to $5.2bn, reflecting strong reported revenue growth and lower reported operating expenses, while reported ECL increased. Adjusted profit before tax up 92% to $6.8bn. Reported profit after tax up $2.9bn to $4.9bn.
• Reported revenue up 24% to $14.9bn, due to strong growth in net interest income and an increase in revenue from Markets and Securities Services (‘MSS’), partly offset by the adverse impact of foreign currency translation differences. Adjusted revenue up 38% to $15.4bn.
• Reported ECL were $1.4bn in 4Q22 and included stage 3 charges relating to exposures in the mainland China commercial real estate sector, as well as corporate exposures in the UK. This compared with charges of $0.5bn in 4Q21.
• Reported operating expenses down 6% to $8.9bn due to the favourable impact of foreign currency translation differences and ongoing cost discipline, which more than offset increases in technology investment and performance-related pay. Adjusted operating expenses up 2% to $7.8bn.
• The impact of our growth and transformation programmes, as well as higher global interest rates, give us confidence in achieving our return on average tangible equity (‘RoTE’) target of at least 12% for 2023 onwards.
• Our revenue outlook remains positive. Based on the current market consensus for global central bank rates, we expect net interest income of at least $36bn in 2023 (on an IFRS 4 basis and retranslated for foreign exchange movements). We intend to update our net interest income guidance at or before our first quarter results to incorporate the expected impact of IFRS 17 ‘Insurance Contracts’.
• While we continue to use a range of 30bps to 40bps of average loans for planning our ECL charge over the medium to long term, given current macroeconomic headwinds, we expect ECL charges to be around 40bps in 2023 (including lending balances transferred to held for sale). We note recent favourable policy developments in mainland China’s commercial real estate sector and continue to monitor events closely.
• We retain our focus on cost discipline and will target 2023 adjusted cost growth of approximately 3% on an IFRS 4 basis. This includes up to $300m of severance costs in 2023, which we expect to generate further efficiencies into 2024. There may also be an incremental adverse impact from retranslating the 2022 results of hyperinflationary economies at constant currency.
• We expect to manage the CET1 ratio within our medium-term target range of 14% to 14.5%. We intend to continue to manage capital efficiently, returning excess capital to shareholders where appropriate.
• Given our current returns trajectory, we are establishing a dividend payout ratio of 50% for 2023 and 2024, excluding material significant items, with consideration of buy-backs brought forward to our first quarter results in May 2023, subject to appropriate capital levels. We also intend to revert to paying quarterly dividends from the first quarter of 2023.
• Subject to the completion of the sale of our banking business in Canada, the Board’s intention is to consider the payment of a special dividend of $0.21 per share as a priority use of the proceeds generated by completion of the transaction. A decision in relation to any potential dividend would be made following the completion of the transaction, currently expected in late 2023, with payment following in early 2024. Further details in relation to record date and other relevant information will be published at that time. Any remaining additional surplus capital is expected to be allocated towards opportunities for organic growth and investment alongside potential share buy-backs, which would be in addition to any existing share buy-back programme.
Key financial metrics
|For the year ended|
|Reported profit before tax ($m)||17,528||18,906||8,777|
|Reported profit after tax ($m)||16,670||14,693||6,099|
|Cost efficiency ratio (%)||64.4||69.9||68.3|
|Net interest margin (%)||1.48||1.20||1.32|
|Basic earnings per share ($)||0.75||0.62||0.19|
|Diluted earnings per share ($)||0.74||0.62||0.19|
|Dividend per ordinary share (in respect of the period) ($)||0.32||0.25||0.15|
|Dividend payout ratio (%)1||44||40||79|
|Alternative performance measures|
|Adjusted profit before tax ($m)||24,010||20,603||11,695|
|Adjusted cost efficiency ratio (%)||55.0||64.0||62.3|
|Expected credit losses and other credit impairment charges (‘ECL’) as % of average gross loans and advances to customers (%)||0.36||(0.08)||0.87|
|Expected credit losses and other credit impairment charges (‘ECL’) as % of average gross loans and advances to customers, including held for sale (%)2||0.35||(0.08)||0.87|
|Return on average ordinary shareholders’ equity (%)||8.7||7.1||2.3|
|Return on average tangible equity (%)||9.9||8.3||3.1|
|At 31 December|
|Total assets ($m)||2,966,530||2,957,939||2,984,164|
|Net loans and advances to customers ($m)||924,854||1,045,814||1,037,987|
|Customer accounts ($m)||1,570,303||1,710,574||1,642,780|
|Average interest-earning assets ($m)||2,203,639||2,209,513||2,092,900|
|Loans and advances to customers as % of customer accounts (%)||58.9||61.1||63.2|
|Total shareholders’ equity ($m)||187,484||198,250||196,443|
|Tangible ordinary shareholders’ equity ($m)||149,355||158,193||156,423|
|Net asset value per ordinary share at period end ($)||8.50||8.76||8.62|
|Tangible net asset value per ordinary share at period end ($)||7.57||7.88||7.75|
|Capital, leverage and liquidity|
|Common equity tier 1 capital ratio (%)3||14.2||15.8||15.9|
|Risk-weighted assets ($m)3,4||839,720||838,263||857,520|
|Total capital ratio (%)3,4||19.3||21.2||21.5|
|Leverage ratio (%)3,4||5.8||5.2||5.5|
|High-quality liquid assets (liquidity value) ($bn)4,5||647||688||678|
|Liquidity coverage ratio (%)4,5||132||139||139|
|Net stable funding ratio (%)4,5||136||N/A||N/A|
|Period end basic number of $0.50 ordinary shares outstanding (millions)||19,739||20,073||20,184|
|Period end basic number of $0.50 ordinary shares outstanding and dilutive potential ordinary shares (millions)||19,876||20,189||20,272|
|Average basic number of $0.50 ordinary shares outstanding (millions)||19,849||20,197||20,169|
For reconciliations of our reported results to an adjusted basis, including lists of significant items, see page 109 of the Annual Report and Accounts 2022. Definitions and calculations of other alternative performance measures are included in our ‘Reconciliation of alternative performance measures’ on page 128 of the Annual Report and Accounts 2022.
1 Dividend per share, in respect of the period, as a percentage of earnings per share adjusted for certain items (recognition of certain deferred tax assets: $0.11 reduction in EPS; planned sales of the retail banking operations in France and banking business in Canada: $0.09 increase in EPS). No items were adjusted in 2021 or 2020.
2 Includes average gross loans and advances to customers reported within ‘assets held for sale’.
3 Unless otherwise stated, regulatory capital ratios and requirements are based on the transitional arrangements of the Capital Requirements Regulation in force at the time. These include the regulatory transitional arrangements for IFRS 9 ‘Financial Instruments’, which are explained further on page 208 of the Annual Report and Accounts 2022. Leverage ratios are reported based on the disclosure rules in force at that time, and include claims on central banks. Current period leverage metrics exclude central bank claims in accordance with the UK leverage rules that were implemented on 1 January 2022. References to EU regulations and directives (including technical standards) should, as applicable, be read as references to the UK’s version of such regulation or directive, as onshored into UK law under the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018, and as may be subsequently amended under UK law.
4 Regulatory numbers and ratios are as presented at the date of reporting. Small changes may exist between these numbers and ratios and those subsequently submitted in regulatory filings. Where differences are significant, we will restate in subsequent periods.
5 The liquidity coverage ratio is based on the average value of the preceding 12 months. The net stable funding ratio is based on the average value of four preceding quarters. December 2021 LCR has been restated for consistency. We have not restated the prior periods for NSFR as no comparatives are available.
Statement by Mark E Tucker, Group Chairman
At the start of 2022, the ongoing impact of Covid-19 was the most dominant factor within the external environment. While further outbreaks in Hong Kong and mainland China significantly impacted economic growth, the Russia-Ukraine war and rising inflation and interest rates had an even greater impact on the global economy in 2022. They are also likely to continue to have a greater economic impact than the pandemic in 2023, as we are already seeing with a cost of living crisis affecting many of our customers and colleagues.
Strong financial performance and higher capital distributions
We supported our customers through the challenges that they faced at the same time as executing our strategic plan. The first phase of our transformation is now complete. The work that we have done has enabled us to emerge from the pandemic a stronger bank, better aligned to the international needs of our customers.
The reshaping of our portfolio continued with the announcement of the planned sale of our banking business in Canada. We continued to develop our Wealth capabilities, especially in Asia, and this strategy gained traction in 2022. Our increased investment in technology has improved the customer experience and made our processes more efficient. Meanwhile, we continued to support our clients to transition to net zero, and also took further important steps towards our ambition of aligning our financed emissions to net zero by 2050. Given the urgency of today’s global energy crisis, it is now even more important that we continue to actively engage our clients on how they intend to prepare their businesses for a low-carbon future.
In 2022, reported profit before tax was $17.5bn, a decrease of $1.4bn compared with 2021 due to the $2.4bn impairment on the planned sale of our French retail banking operations. Adjusted profit before tax was $24.0bn, an increase of $3.4bn on last year. All of our businesses grew profits in 2022, and we maintained our strong capital, funding and liquidity positions.
As we signalled at our interim results, we are committed to ensuring our shareholders share the benefits of our improved performance. The Board approved a second interim dividend for 2022 of $0.23 per share, bringing the full year dividend for 2022 to $0.32 per share. We are establishing a dividend payout ratio of 50% of reported earnings per share for 2023 and 2024, excluding material significant items, and we aim to restore the dividend to pre-Covid-19 levels as soon as possible. We also intend to return to paying quarterly dividends from the start of 2023.
Subject to completion of the planned sale of our banking business in Canada, the Board’s intention is to consider the payment of a special dividend of $0.21 per share as a priority use of the proceeds generated. A decision in relation to any potential dividend would be made following the completion of the transaction, currently expected in late 2023, with payment following in early 2024. Any remaining additional surplus capital is expected to be allocated towards opportunities for organic growth and investment alongside share buy-backs, which would be in addition to any existing share buy-back programme.
In 2022, the Board met in person in London, Hong Kong, New York and Riyadh – on each occasion also undertaking a wide range of engagements with clients, colleagues, government officials and regulators. The importance of engaging with our teams was also underlined by the appointment of José (Pepe) Meade as Board member with specific responsibility for employee liaison. At the same time as holding some in-person meetings, the continued use of virtual meetings enabled us to retain the benefits of greater efficiency and reduced costs.
At the 2022 Annual General Meeting, Irene Lee and Pauline van der Meer Mohr stepped down from the Board. I am enormously grateful to them for their important and valuable contributions to the Board, the committees and the subsidiary entities on which they have served. Irene remains an independent non-executive Director of The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited and independent non-executive chair of Hang Seng Bank Limited. Geraldine Buckingham joined the Board as an independent non-executive Director on 1 May.
Following Ewen Stevenson’s departure, Georges Elhedery became Group Chief Financial Officer and joined the Board on 1 January 2023. On behalf of the Board, I would like to again thank Ewen for all that he has done for the bank. His leadership, financial expertise and operational rigour have been invaluable to HSBC, and he leaves with our very best wishes.
We also recently announced some changes to the Board. Kalpana Morparia will join the Board as an independent non-executive Director on 1 March. Jack Tai will retire from the Board at the conclusion of the 2023 AGM, and will be succeeded as Chair of the Group Risk Committee by Jamie Forese. Jack has made a significant and important contribution during his time on the Board, particularly in the strengthening of risk and conduct governance and oversight through a period of major change. We wish him very well in his future endeavours.
Noel and I were delighted to meet face-to-face with our loyal Hong Kong shareholders at our Informal Shareholders Meeting in August. We have always greatly valued their feedback and engagement, and this meeting was as well attended as ever. We were pleased to discuss how our business has performed, our continued support of Hong Kong, and our commitment to growing shareholder value. We look forward to continuing these discussions in person in 2023.
Our strategy is working
There were reports over the course of last year about ideas for alternative structures for HSBC. The Board has been fully engaged in examining these alternatives in depth, with the benefit of independent third-party financial and legal advice. It has been, and remains, our judgement that alternative structural options would not deliver increased value for shareholders. Rather, they would have a material negative impact on value.
For 157 years, we have followed trade and investment flows to support our customers as they fulfil their financial ambitions. We have used our experience, expertise and relationships to help our customers to navigate the world.
Today, we remain steadfastly focused on our core purpose of ‘opening up a world of opportunity’. Our model is particularly relevant to individuals and companies of all sizes whose financial ambitions span multiple countries and regions. Very few, if any, other banks can rival our ability to connect capital, ideas and people through a global network that facilitates the international access and collaboration required to succeed in today’s world.
Our performance in 2022 demonstrates that our current strategy is working and improving returns. We are also confident that it will deliver good returns for our shareholders over the coming years. The Board and management team are fully focused on delivering it.
An uneven macroeconomic outlook
We will need to maintain this focus against an uneven macroeconomic outlook. The pandemic, high inflation and interest rates, and the Russia-Ukraine war all have implications for the global economy, including volatility in markets, supply chain disruption, pressure on small and medium-sized business and squeezes on the cost of living. Different economies also now face different challenges and have different opportunities in 2023.
China’s reopening and package of measures to stabilise the property market should provide a significant boost for its economy and the global economy, albeit with some near-term volatility. Our economists forecast China’s GDP will grow 5% in 2023. The reopening of the border means that Hong Kong, and the entire Greater Bay Area, are likely to be major beneficiaries, and I expect to see a strong recovery.
More broadly, Asia as a whole has proven resilient and there is the prospect of a strong rebound later in the year. Virtually all economies in the region have now recovered the output losses incurred during the pandemic and are above 2019 levels.
The Middle East economies enjoyed a strong 2022, and we expect this momentum to continue in 2023 on the back of the important reforms underway to transform, diversify and grow the region’s economies. We see strong and growing demand to connect clients in the Middle East with Asia’s economies, and vice versa.
In contrast, Europe, including the UK, face challenges from higher energy prices fuelling inflation and necessitating higher interest rates, driven in part by the Russia-Ukraine war. All of these factors are contributing to a cost of living crisis and more economic uncertainty. We expect that any recession, if there is one at all, will be relatively shallow.
The US economy is proving resilient and a hard landing appears unlikely. Some economists believe that inflation may now have peaked in the US, and there is consensus that the US will avoid recession. I expect the US to make an important contribution to global GDP growth in 2023.
Overall, I am optimistic about the global economy in the second half of 2023, but there is still a high level of uncertainty due to the Russia-Ukraine war and recessionary fears may yet dominate much of the year ahead.
Navigating geopolitics remains challenging
The geopolitical environment remains challenging for our clients to navigate. There is sadly no end in sight to the Russia-Ukraine war. However, the West’s relationship with China appears to be relatively stable. The renewed, constructive dialogue between President Xi and President Biden at the G20 in November was clearly important. While further US sanctions are expected this year, capital flows between China and the West increased during the pandemic, even with reciprocal tariffs in place. China is also taking an active approach to diplomatic engagement with European nations, including the UK. China’s reopening will also allow for the resumption of face-to-face visits, which will support greater dialogue between China and important partners such as Germany, France and the UK. We also naturally continue to engage with governments around the world.
One of the key trends of the past three years has been supply chain disruption, due largely to a combination of geopolitics, pandemic and war-related factors. Businesses are seeking to build greater resilience into their supply chains, reduce their dependence on sole suppliers or regions, and take the opportunity to digitise. I expect these trends all to continue throughout 2023. HSBC’s global network means we are well placed to adapt to regional diversification that takes place within supply chains.
Thank you to my colleagues
Finally, my colleagues have once again shown great dedication, energy and care in serving our customers and working together over the past year. They have exemplified our purpose of ‘opening up a world of opportunity’ and our core values. While we want to achieve even more in 2023 and beyond, I am very proud of what they achieved in 2022 – and I am extremely grateful to each of them.
Mark E Tucker
21 February 2023
Review by Noel Quinn, Group Chief Executive
We have completed the first phase of our transformation. Our international connectivity is now underpinned by good, broad-based profit generation around the world. Our focus is now on continuing to grow our core business, while also capitalising on the new sources of value creation that we have built.
When we embarked on our transformation programme in February 2020, our aim was to address the fundamental issues that had contributed to a decade of low returns. It was clear to me that too much of our capital was being used inefficiently, too many of our businesses were loss-making and sub-scale, and too many of our clients were low returning and purely domestic in nature. Over the last three years, while responding to the challenges of the pandemic, we have structurally repositioned our businesses and operating model to achieve higher returns.
The most significant changes to our portfolio have been the exit and wind-down of non-strategic assets and clients in the Americas and Europe, and the investment in technology and in organic and inorganic growth in Asia, especially in Wealth and Personal Banking. We have completed the sale of our US mass market retail business, and announced the planned exit of our French retail banking operations and the planned sale of our banking business in Canada. We have also announced exits in other smaller businesses, including Greece and Russia. A key factor in assessing the strategic value of our businesses has been whether they capitalise on the distinct advantages that we have, especially those derived from our global network.
Our work to increase capital efficiency resulted in cumulative risk-weighted asset savings of $128bn by the end of 2022, in excess of our original target as we accelerated restructuring in the US and Europe. This enabled us to reallocate capital towards Asia and the Middle East.
Finally, we have transformed our cost base and restored tight cost discipline across the organisation. Our cost to achieve programme concluded at the end of 2022, but it enabled us to take multiple layers of inefficiency out of the business and embed changes that we expect to provide flow-through benefits for years to come.
Building a good platform for future growth
At the same time, we have invested in new sources of value creation that provide a good platform for future growth. Developing our capabilities in Wealth, particularly in Asia, has been a strategic priority as we have sought to diversify our revenues. We have done this organically through the build-out of our Pinnacle business in mainland China, and inorganically through the purchases of AXA Singapore and L&T Investment Management in India, by increasing our stake to 90% in HSBC Qianhai Securities, and by taking full ownership of our HSBC Life China insurance business. The traction that we are gaining in Wealth is reflected by the $80bn of net new invested assets that we attracted in 2022, $59bn of which were in Asia.
Our core purpose is ‘opening up a world of opportunity’ and that, in essence, is what we do by helping our personal and corporate customers to move money between countries and do business across borders. This is still the best way for us to create value, and what makes us a world leading bank for international and mid-market customers. We are the number one trade finance bank, and trade revenue was up 13% in 2022, surpassing the good level of growth in the previous year. Trade also increased in all regions.
We are also one of the leading global foreign exchange houses and a leading payments company globally, with over $600tn of payments processed in 2022. Our global connectivity has made international our fastest-growing revenue segment in Wealth and Personal Banking. Products like Global Money and our Wealth platforms are specifically designed to meet the international needs of our retail and wealth customers. These customers also provide around double the average revenue of domestic-only customers.
The difference compared with three years ago is that our international connectivity is now underpinned by good broad-based profit generation around the world. Already the leading bank in Hong Kong, we gained market share last year in key products including customer deposits, insurance and trade finance. We are also the leading foreign bank in mainland China by revenue and are pleased to have received seven main licence approvals since 2020. Our business in India delivered $0.9bn of profit before tax last year and facilitated the equivalent of around 9% of India’s exports. In the Middle East, we delivered $1.8bn of profits and were the number one bank in capital markets league tables. HSBC UK delivered $5bn of profits and was the number one bank for trade finance, while our non-ring-fenced bank in Europe delivered $2.1bn of profits and around 35% of its client business was booked outside the region. Our US business has now had nine consecutive quarters of profitability after its turnaround, while our business in Mexico delivered a return on tangible equity of 18%.
The cost savings that we have made have been reinvested in technology, which has in turn enabled us to change the way we operate as a business. Technology spending was 19% higher in 2022 than in 2019. Much of this investment has been used to rebuild and upgrade platforms, which we have then rolled out globally. Our upgraded mobile banking app is available in 24 markets and has around 13 million active users, while our upgraded digital trade finance platform has been rolled out in the UK and Hong Kong, ensuring that market-leading businesses are well positioned for the next 10 years. In 2022, we launched HSBC Orion, our new proprietary tokenisation platform using blockchain technology for bond issuances. We’re also partnering with fintechs around the world to use their capabilities in our products. Finally, we are investing in greater automation, which we expect to reap the benefits from for years to come.
Empowering our people has underpinned everything that we have achieved over the past three years – and it will underpin the next phase of our strategy too. Reducing management layers has helped to increase our speed and agility. In our last staff survey, the number of colleagues who report that work processes allow them to work efficiently was 6 percentage points above the sector benchmark. Confidence within the organisation has also increased. 77% of colleagues told us they are confident about our future, which is 3 percentage points up on 2021. We have continued to make steady progress against our medium-term targets on gender and ethnicity representation, while the number of hours that colleagues spent learning about digital and data, and sustainability also increased by 13% last year, underlining the importance of these critical future skills.
The transition to net zero will offer increasingly significant commercial opportunities in the future. We have continued to make good progress towards our ambition of providing and facilitating $750bn to $1tn of sustainable financing and investment by 2030. At the end of 2022, the cumulative total for sustainable financing and investment since 2020 had reached more than $210bn. We published an updated energy policy, which commits us to no longer provide new finance or advisory services for the specific purpose of projects pertaining to new oil and gas fields and related infrastructure whose primary use is in conjunction with new fields. As per our policy, we will continue to provide finance to maintain supplies of oil and gas in line with declining current and future global demand, while accelerating our activities in support of clean energy. We have also set interim 2030 targets for on-balance sheet financed emissions for eight sectors. These include six sectors for which we have reported 2019 and 2020 emissions. We recognise that methodologies and data for measuring emissions will continue to evolve, and our own disclosures will therefore continue to develop as a result. In 2023, we will publish our first bank-wide climate transition plan.
Strong overall financial performance in 2022
The progress that we have made transforming HSBC and investing in growth has helped to drive an improved financial performance in 2022. A strong net interest income performance reflected higher global interest rates, but there was also good underlying growth across the business in key areas, particularly those linked to our international network.
Overall, the Group delivered $17.5bn of reported profit before tax, which was $1.4bn lower than in 2021. This was due to a net expected credit loss charge of $3.6bn compared with a net release of $0.9bn last year, as well as the impairment of $2.4bn relating to the planned sale of our retail banking operations in France. Adjusted profit before tax was $24bn, up $3.4bn.
Adjusted revenue was 18% higher than the same period last year, as net interest income grew strongly in all of our global businesses. There was also a strong performance in Global Foreign Exchange. Our reported return on tangible equity for 2022 was 9.9%. Excluding significant items, we delivered a return on tangible equity of 11.6%.
There was a good performance across our global businesses. In Commercial Banking, adjusted profit before tax was up by 24% to $7.7bn, driven by revenue increases across all products and in all regions, most notably Asia and the UK. Within this, Global Payments Solutions revenue grew by 104% on the back of higher interest rates, while trade revenue was up 14% with growth in all regions.
Global Banking and Markets delivered adjusted profit before tax of $5.4bn, up 8% compared with 2021. Global Payments Solutions was again the main driver, with 119% growth in net interest income from higher interest rates, and a strong performance in Global Foreign Exchange. In Wealth and Personal Banking, adjusted profit before tax of $8.5bn was 27% higher than 2021. Net interest income growth drove a good performance in Personal Banking, while there was also balance sheet growth in the UK, Asia outside Hong Kong, and Mexico.
We restricted adjusted cost growth to 1% in 2022 as a result of the significant cost-saving actions that we have taken. This represents a good outcome given the high inflation environment. After good capital generation in the fourth quarter, our CET1 ratio at the end of 2022 was 14.2% and back within our target range of 14% to 14.5%. We are able to pay a second interim dividend of $0.23 per share, bringing the total 2022 dividend to $0.32 per share.
Improved returns and substantial distribution capacity
We are firmly on track to achieve our target of a return on tangible equity of at least 12% from 2023 onwards. We have built up a good level of expected credit loss provisions, and we also expect the headwinds associated with macroeconomic uncertainty and the ongoing challenges within the China commercial real estate sector to subside, enabling expected credit losses to start to normalise.
There will be no easing off at all on costs. Our cost to achieve programme has now ended, but we will continue to seek and find opportunities to create efficiencies that will deliver sustainable cost savings in future years. We are now considering up to $300m of additional costs for severance in 2023. These costs will need to be reported in our costs line. Taking this into account, we will aim for approximately 3% cost growth in 2023. Tight cost discipline will remain a priority for the whole Group.
As a result of the improving quality of our returns, we are establishing a dividend payout ratio of 50% of reported earnings per share for 2023 and 2024, excluding material significant items. We will aim to restore the dividend to pre-Covid-19 levels as soon as possible. We also intend to revert to paying quarterly dividends from the start of 2023. Given the capital generation at the end of 2022, we will bring forward the consideration of buy-backs to the announcement of our results for the first quarter of 2023.
Finally, subject to the completion of the sale of our banking business in Canada, I am pleased that the Board will consider payment of a special dividend of $0.21 per share in early 2024 as a priority use of the surplus capital generated by the transaction. We understand the importance of dividends to our shareholders and expect them to benefit from improved capital distributions ahead.
My colleagues are getting it done
I would like to end by thanking my colleagues around the world. Over the last three years, they have managed a period of substantial change, embraced the opportunities that our transformation has presented and gone the extra mile to support our customers – all while living through a global pandemic. More recently, there have also been the Russia-Ukraine war, the real-life financial strains caused by high inflation and the devastating earthquakes in Türkiye for them to deal with. We have only made the progress that we have because of their efforts. They are exemplifying our value of getting it done, and I am proud to lead them.
Overall, 2022 was another good year for HSBC. We completed the first phase of our transformation and our international connectivity is now underpinned by good, broad-based profit generation around the world. This contributed to a strong overall financial performance. We are on track to deliver higher returns in 2023 and have built a platform for further value creation. With the delivery of higher returns, we will have increased distribution capacity, and we will also consider a special dividend once the sale of HSBC Canada is completed.
Group Chief Executive
21 February 2023